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19 November 2016 / leggypeggy

The gift of language

Indian school children

Language masters by school years 5 and 6

The other day in Bandipur, we had the good fortune to meet a lovely bunch of Muslim school children from Chennai (formerly Madras) in southern India. There were 70 boys and girls in the group (two busloads), chaperoned by 10 or so teachers and parents.

Six girls were especially chatty and approached Poor John for a long chat in English. Yes, these 10 to 12-year-olds spoke excellent English. Actually it’s not all that surprising because English is an official language of India.

But these girls also spoke Gujarat (what they spoke at home), Hindi (another official language of India) and Tamil (the language spoken in Chennai’s state of Tamil Nadu). No doubt, some of the other children spoke different languages as well, depending on their original home state or family background.

I was gobsmacked to find such broad knowledge in ones so young, but they were completely nonchalant about their amazing skills.

And yet this is the norm in much of India.

Sandeep who is travelling with us is from the Gond tribe. He speaks Gond, Hindi and several other tribal languages. He’s driven trucks in many parts of India, so he’s also picked up a smattering of several other languages. He’s only 21. We’re teaching him some English. He’s a quick learner.

Decorating an Indian boat

Sandeep at Tarkarli Beach

Poor John and I studied French and Arabic, and had the chance to use them regularly in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Now we don’t remember much of either. That said, even the basics of both languages have come in handy as we’ve blundered around the world. Remind me to tell you how I managed to beat down the price for decontaminating the truck when we crossed the border into the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

With the exception of Aboriginals, Australians have a long way to go with languages. Many Aboriginals speak their own language as well as several other indigenous languages. The average Australian has just English or a foreign language they hardly ever get to practice. More and more people are beginning to learn Indonesian, Japanese and Chinese—the languages of our geographic neighbours.

I’m pleased to say our daughters are doing their bit on languages. Libby is living in Paris, so honing her skills in French. Petra went on exchange to Belgium at the age of 16, so has excellent French—Spanish too, as well as some German and Portuguese. Now she’s learning Vietnamese to go on posting to Ho Chi Minh City next year with Australia’s diplomatic corps.

Petra’s ear for languages probably developed in her infancy. We moved to Burma (Myanmar) when she was 9 months old and she grew up hearing English, Burmese and Karen spoken every day. I was shocked when I realised that she knew all three languages by the time she was two and a half.

So here’s a tip. If you are multi-lingual in your family or household, be sure to let your children learn all the languages being spoken. Just don’t mix them up between people. If mum speaks English, then mum should be the one to speak English to the child. If dad speaks, say Chinese, let him speak to the child in Chinese. If a grandparent speaks yet another language, let them bring that into the mix. That way the child differentiates between all the languages.

This is not some unsubstantiated brainwave from me. It’s supported by research.

Do you have second or third languages?

Kids in Bandipur India

Kids and a teacher enjoying the swings at the lodge in Bandipur


Leave a Comment
  1. gerard oosterman / Nov 19 2016 4:37 pm

    Yes, languages are the foundation of any culture. Schools should teach languages in Australia, (especially English) and ease up a bit on all that sport. In The Netherlands, apart from Dutch the kids are taught English, French and German.

    Helvi and I spoke mainly German at the beginning, but we now speak mainly English. Finnish is something I try and keep up. Helvi is fluent in Dutch and Swedish as well as her native Finnish.

    I am just glad my English was taught back in Holland.

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 19 2016 11:16 pm

      I’m impressed with your breadth of language knowledge. What a gift.

      Libby, Petra and I were travelling by train from Florence to Brussels. We shared our carriage with a Flemish woman and her Italian husband. She spoke to her husband in Italian, Libby and me in English, Petra in French, while she did her crossword in a Dutch newspaper. Oh my!


  2. Expatorama / Nov 19 2016 5:22 pm

    I want to hear more about the truck that needed decontaminating? I’m a huge proponent of learning foreign languages, it opens so many doors especially when travelling or if you live overseas. It also makes for the occasional funny story when people assume you don’t understand what they are saying when actually you do.

    Liked by 3 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:06 am

      The truck story will come around soon enough. It’s full of funny stories and huge mistakes, but they got me there in the end. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  3. Sharon Bonin-Pratt / Nov 19 2016 6:31 pm

    I know several families who exposed their children from infancy the way you’ve described here – adults speaking different languages so the kids become multi-lingual. I wish I spoke Spanish as it’s so common in the U.S.

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 19 2016 11:06 pm

      The need for Spanish in the USA arose mostly after I left in the 1970s. But I was always impressed by the elementary school in central Nebraska that decided to teach in both English and Spanish from about 1975. Way ahead of their time. It was because many Mexican labourers came to work on the farms.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. fiftywordsdaily / Nov 19 2016 7:21 pm

    Totally agree with you – a massive regret of mine is my fundamental inability to speak another language. I am still trying – this time with German – but I fear my brain may have ossified beyond linguistic reception…..

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:01 am

      I studied German for six years. Was quite good at it a very long time ago. Now—nada! I wish you luck and encouragement. Maybe Albert will practice with you.

      Liked by 1 person

      • fiftywordsdaily / Nov 20 2016 5:23 am

        Albert claims to be fluent in twelve languages but just too shy to prove it. I have my doubts…..

        Liked by 1 person

      • leggypeggy / Dec 5 2016 8:17 pm

        Me too!


  5. beetleypete / Nov 19 2016 8:48 pm

    When I was at secondary school (1963-1969) studying languages was optional, so many chose to drop it in favour of a technical subject. By the time I was studying A level French, there were only six of us in the class. So I managed to get a good command of French as a teenager, that carried on until my thirties, with frequent trips to France or Belgium. (Although Flemish is preferred in many parts of that country) I now have little reason to use any language other than English.
    It has long been the case that with English so widely spoken around the world, we are generally lazy at bothering to learn other languages. The ease with which some nationalities achieve a knowledge of three or more languages has always been a source of inspiration to me, and something we should try to reinforce in our own educational system.
    Best wishes, Pete.

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:05 am

      Not so long ago I saw an article on how English will change (rapidly) because it is a second language for so many. I wonder if we will be able to keep up?
      As for French, I’m tempted to go live there for six to 12 months and recover some of the language I’ve lost. Same with Arabic. Maybe 12 months in Egypt.


  6. Midwestern Plant Girl / Nov 20 2016 12:33 am

    I’ve tried French and Spanish for years since 6th grade… they never stuck. I think my brain has a wiring issue. I have to translate everything in my brain before I can speak. No flow.
    I’m currently learning sign language. I’m picking it up quite quickly. Maybe because I’m left handed/right brained? Technically, I’m still speaking English. Maybe that’s it?

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:10 am

      Oh wow, sign language is a great skill. Pat yourself on the back! My language skills improve immensely when I’m in a country that uses the language.

      Liked by 1 person

  7. lexklein / Nov 20 2016 12:34 am

    I’m a language lover with a master’s in Linguistics. My field was/is second language acquisition and how the brain processes multiple languages. The U.S. (and it sounds like Australia) do a poor job of encouraging second language acquisition but, of course, that’s because they don’t have to! (I’m not saying that’s necessarily good …) So many other countries simply must offer English, and in other places multiple tongues are spoken within a small radius. As for me, I speak good Spanish, which is very helpful here, and decent French and Greek. I’ve studied many others and would like to study even more!

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:23 am

      I’m jealous of all your languages. My skills come and go—mostly go when I am in Australia. I’d like to reclaim my French and Arabic. Maybe someday.

      Liked by 1 person

  8. thegreyeye / Nov 20 2016 1:28 am

    Ah you guys are so close 🙂 chennai is half an hour flight 🙂

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:22 am

      Oops sorry. Maybe next time. We are near Periyar and about 12 hours by road from Chennai.

      Liked by 1 person

  9. Elouise / Nov 20 2016 3:28 am

    Great post about languages! I think it’s a huge challenge for us here in the USofA. Instead of learning ‘their’ languages (our incoming neighbors), we lay the weight of language on them. To answer your question, I speak German as well as English–though I studied it (5 months in Germany) many years ago. We were in Germany this past summer, and I was amazed at how quickly my mind shifted–from just hearing it, seeing it everywhere, and having to ask a few questions/understand a few directives. I also studied Greek and Hebrew in seminary, and had to pass a French reading test for my Ph.D. program, but those don’t really count for spoken languages. I’ve often wished I’d grown up in a multi-lingual family. Your reference to research about how to make a multi-lingual family ‘work’ was very interesting. Maybe I’ll transform into the German-speaking Grandmother to my nieces and nephew!

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:35 am

      You’ve certainly had a wonderful smattering of languages. And it is amazing how quickly a learned language returns once you are in the environment. So don’t forget to let us know how you go as as a German-speaking ‘grandmother’.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Elouise / Nov 20 2016 3:42 am

        Thanks! I’m already polishing up a few choice phrases for my teenager subjects! (who, of course, know me as Queen Elouise)

        Liked by 1 person

      • leggypeggy / Nov 20 2016 3:52 am

        Appropriate title. Love it.


  10. ninagrandiose / Nov 20 2016 4:48 am

    My American sister who lives in Mexico spoke to her son in Spanish but would often switch back to English. It was hard on him and he didn’t speak until quite late. Now he is fluent in both but it was very confusing for him. I’m a smatterer. I speak Spanish and French well and from my travels have picked up bits and pieces of Hindi, Japanese and German. I often compare learning a language to being able to hear music.

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:39 am

      Thanks so much for the explanation about your nephew. I bet it was a struggle for him. As for languages, I’m a smatterer too.


  11. chattykerry / Nov 20 2016 5:07 am

    That’s a beautiful photograph. I speak a smattering of bad Arabic, French and Spanish. As soon as I stop using it, I forget it…

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:36 am

      I forget so much when I don’t have the chance to use the language, although some phrases seem to stick with me forever.

      Liked by 1 person

      • chattykerry / Nov 21 2016 3:30 am

        Khallas is the one I remember…😉

        Liked by 1 person

      • leggypeggy / Nov 24 2016 2:04 am

        A very useful word to remember—meaning ‘finished’.


  12. dave ply / Nov 20 2016 5:15 am

    Over the course of my career I learned and eventually forgot a long list of computer languages – does that count? As for the verbal ones, I had a couple years of Spanish in high school, but that was 40+ years ago, and very little remains.

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:37 am

      Thanks for the reminder. I’m sure computer languages count. I learned Cobal and Fortran in the early 1960s and can now only remember how to spell them. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

  13. Rhonda / Nov 20 2016 6:51 am

    I learnt French and German at High School ( 5 years of each). While I can still understand a little of both, lack of practise means that my accent is now atrocious in both. However, that learning stood me in good stead when I was first married and went to live in Denmark with my Danish husband. I found learning Danish very easy and still speak it, although now that both his parents have died and I’m not likely to pick up the phone and suddenly have to switch to Danish, the accent is suffering!
    There has been a move in Early Childhood education in Australia to encourage parents to continue to speak their mother tongues to their children, and leave the learning of English to come naturally through attendance at daycare, preschool and school. Unfortunately, that movement is small and not being encouraged by society in general. Australians need to realise what a huge natural resource we have via our migrant populations if this is encouraged, and look at the advantages it would bring to trade and diplomacy. And, quite apart from that, can you imagine how difficult it must be to have those deep and meaningful conversations of the teenage and early adult years with your children if English is your second language ( which many migrants struggle to learn and speak), and your children don’t speak or understand your mother tongue?

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:43 am

      I’m so pleased to know that early childhood education is encouraging parents to speak the mother tongue at home. Sure gives those kids a head start for life. And an excellent point about deep and meaningful conversations as they grow up.


  14. Rhonda / Nov 20 2016 6:54 am

    And…the latest research is showing that learning/speaking two or more languages from birth opens up neural pathways in the brain that otherwise don’t develop.

    Liked by 3 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:44 am

      Makes me glad I called this post ‘the gift of language’.


  15. mistermuse / Nov 20 2016 2:53 pm

    You ask if I speak a second or third language. I speak “Yesdear,” which my wife taught me early on in our marriage….and you’d be surprised (well, maybe not) at how often it has gotten me out of trouble. 🙂

    Liked by 4 people

    • Curious to the Max / Nov 20 2016 3:50 pm

      Fluency in any language ALWAYS brings a different world view! . . . in your case it’s gender specific.

      Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:46 am

      Poor John gets out of knowing ‘yesdear’ by having selective deafness. Where did I go wrong?

      Liked by 2 people

  16. Vicki / Nov 20 2016 3:44 pm

    I did 3 years of French at secondary level and wanted to spend a year in working in France in the mid 1970s to refresh it, but ended up just doing a ‘refresher’ night course while living in London. I think one really needs to have an ear when it comes to learning languages. 2 of my best friends speak good French, but I’m embarrassed to say I can only speak the odd word or basic sentence nowadays.
    One friend had to learn Thai when the family lived in Bangkok for 3 years and to this day, the whole family have good skills in a few languages (being well travelled).

    I think our school children should be learning more languages of our neighbouring countries (not French or German as my brother and I learnt).

    And as you say, it helps to be taught by someone of that background.

    ….and I believe all migrants and refugees should learn the language of their chosen country of living (as well as keeping up their own language and teaching their young children).

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 12:54 am

      As a teenager, I was desperate to go on exchange in France or Germany. It wasn’t to be. It’s one of my regrets, but then my life might have turned out completely differently than it has, and I’m content with where I am.

      Liked by 1 person

  17. Yahooey / Nov 21 2016 2:05 am

    I think it’s mostly forgotten that multiple languages is the historical norm and still prevalent in many places with the classic trio being a home language from the parents, a local dialect and the national lingua franca.

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 6:27 pm

      Excellent point. I’m pretty sure my ancestors spoke several languages.

      Liked by 1 person

  18. Sy S. / Nov 21 2016 4:09 pm

    I live in New York City and have in front of me a paper flier “I AM NYC” .. to obtain a “IDNYC” identification card to get into about 40 Cultural Institutions (museums, theaters, botanical gardens/zoo, etc)… free or a small charge (for one year). The flier is one big one, printed in English and also with the following languages;
    1) A small paragraph/wording in; Spanish, Chinese, Russian, Haitian Creole. Korean,Bengali.
    2) One to two lines (for additional info call, Tel Number) for these languages; Arabic, Armenian, Farsi, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Italian, Japanese, Polish, Portuguese, Serbo-Croatian, Tagalog, Thai, Urdu, Vietnamese, Yiddish.

    Hasta La Vista/Bye,


    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 21 2016 6:29 pm

      Wow, that’s fantastic and a good sign that NYC cares about communicating with its diverse populations. Thanks for sharing.


  19. alittlebitofingrid / Nov 21 2016 8:02 pm

    I live in the Flemish, Dutch speaking of Belgium. In elementary school all children start learning French too. In secondary school English is added and depending on the orientation you’re following other languages were added. I followed a classic Latin/math combo in secondary school, next to Latin, Dutch, French and English German was added too. I always liked language, I
    Ike to know how to express myself when exploring new territory and find it people always appreciate if you try to speak their native tongue even if it only to say good morning or thank you. I took a few Italian lessons once, thinking about picking that up again! Enjoy your day Peggy, geniet van je dag😉

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 23 2016 1:48 am

      Thanks so much, a littlebitofingrid. You have such a wonderful and broad experience with languages. I’m jealous. Everywhere I go I try to master the pleasantries of the local language. It’s always nice to say please and thank you.


  20. The Year I Touched My Toes / Nov 21 2016 9:39 pm

    Hi Peggy, Great post. Yes the average Aussie is way behind in the language stakes. I think they should make it compulsory.

    I learnt Italian at school for three years but couldn’t really speak it. When I married the Trainer ( who is Sicilian born and grew up in Melbourne) we lived in Milano for 15 months. I learnt Italian in the mornings and taught English in the afternoons. I was quite good, speaking fluently but I wouldn’t call myself fluent. I am sure you understand that concept. I speak some Sicilian dialect, I need to brush up as we are planning to go to Sicily next year if all the planets are lined up.

    The trainer is good with languages and speaks five – English, Italian,Spanish, French and Indonesian. So he is quite handy to have around but I say I can make myself understood in any language. I act, draw, mime whatever it takes. Hell I think I can make myself understood in Swahili. Anyway Ongoa! that’s “Tarzan” for Let’s Go! Ciao for now, Louise

    ( I’m behind with my post reading and am slowly catching up, looking forward to reading more of your Indian posts.)

    Liked by 2 people

    • leggypeggy / Nov 23 2016 1:44 am

      Love your language rundown, Louise. Good luck on the brush up. I’m sure it will go well. Like you, I can usually make myself understood in any language. Sign language, sketches, handstands—I’ll try anything.
      P.S. I’m behind on everything to do with blogs—mine and everyone else’s. 🙂

      Liked by 1 person

      • The Year I Touched My Toes / Dec 18 2016 9:25 pm

        PS Peggy I am going to try and remember to ask you the Congolese truck border story sometime next year. Louise


      • leggypeggy / Dec 18 2016 9:29 pm

        Thanks Louise. It will take me some time to get the whole thing written.


  21. voulaah / Nov 22 2016 5:39 pm

    thnak you so mch for sharing this post Peggy
    Language is the foundation of any culture
    I agree with you
    Have a very nice day

    Liked by 1 person

  22. alicevstheworld / Nov 23 2016 4:07 am

    I’m not lucky enough to have a second language but I have been learning Japanese for a couple of years now.

    And I’d love to visit India one day, it looks like such a incredible place!

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Nov 24 2016 3:49 am

      Good on you for trying to pick up another language. Hope your studies go well. And yes, India is incredible. No wonder we have visited three times in three years.

      Liked by 1 person

  23. Alison and Don / Nov 24 2016 2:19 am

    Don and I both muddle our way through French and Spanish – not even close to a conversation but we can make our needs known and manage eventually to understand the answers.
    From birth my niece spoke only English to her daughter and her husband spoke only French though both are fluent in both languages. At the age of 2 their daughter announced to her papa – in French – maman speaks English, you speak French. Me – I speak both!

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Nov 24 2016 3:15 am

      Poor John and I muddle a lot too. Love the story aout your niece. A perfect example of a child learning a language painlessly.

      Liked by 1 person

  24. mousebytesblog / Dec 1 2016 8:52 am

    It’s great that you’re encouraging your daughters to keep up their language learning! I only wish that my parents spoke to me in Irish. Being Irish, my first language is English although we all learn Irish in school. It’s a shame that the language isn’t spoken more. As for me, I can speak English, rough Irish, reasonable German, a spattering of Spanish and oddly enough, I can read Korean! Very interesting post!

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Dec 5 2016 9:33 pm

      Oh my, you have some wonderful languages. the Korean is unexpected, and a big bonus. Hope you manage to capture more Irish. 🙂


  25. Brian Lageose / Dec 5 2016 5:10 pm

    I had several years of French in high school and college. (I actually wanted to double-major in French and Communications, but after my sophomore year I had to go “find myself” and ended up not getting a degree in either.) Since then, I’ve been to France several times, so I somewhat keep up my knowledge base, but it’s not at the level I would like it to be. I’ve been teaching myself Spanish for most of the last year (Rosetta Stone), and that seems to be going moderately well. I can now understand parts of overheard conversations. (I live in an area of Dallas that is 40-50% Hispanic, so I hear Spanish on a daily basis.)

    On a side note, during one of our trips to Paris, the owner of the hotel where we stayed (who is a good friend of my mother’s) offered me the chance to stay indefinitely in his hotel FOR FREE if I truly wanted to learn the language. I was in my my early 30s at the time, and I distinctly remember him saying that the 30s are your last decade to learn a language easily. I thought it was an odd thing to say, and I stupidly turned him down, partly because my career was going well at Verizon and partly due to fear of the unknown. (Could I get a job? How would I eat?) Interestingly enough, when you flash forward to now, trying to learn Spanish in my 50s has been a challenge. Back in the day, when I learned a new French word, I had it after a couple of repetitions. Now? When I walk away from my Spanish coursework, I can’t remember a single word that I’ve learned. I have to see the same word ten or twenty times before it sticks. It seems to support the idea that learning languages early is the best way to go about it.

    Sorry to ramble so on your blog. But I did want to answer your question, and it’s given me an idea for my own blog, so hopefully it’s a win-win for both of us… 😉

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Dec 5 2016 8:16 pm

      Oh Brian, I love long rambling comments on the blog. They often come to a lot of good! Look forward to seeing how you weave the theme into your blog.

      As for the languages, I know how hindsight gnaws at you. I’d jump at any chance that someone gave me to live somewhere for free and learn a language. Maybe I’ll have to camp at daughter Libby’s in France? Wouldn’t she love that?

      Liked by 1 person

  26. jahnavishah / Dec 11 2016 3:57 pm

    Hey! I loved your post. Being from India myself, most people here speak several languages (other than Hindi and English). Its really great that you’ve encouraged your daughters to learn so many languages. I myself speak French & Spanish besides 4 other regional Indian languages. I think multilingualism can take you a long way, not only for the number of opportunities that you may have but it also helps develop ones cognitive skills, like you rightly mentioned. 😀
    I recently started blogging about languages & linguistics and would love for you to checkout my blog 😀 :
    Thanks 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Dec 12 2016 4:29 pm

      I was amazed by the number of languages people in India speak. So impressive. Your blog is impressive too, and I am following. Cheers.

      Liked by 1 person

  27. Maniparna Sengupta Majumder / Dec 23 2016 8:54 am

    Wow! You are in India!! Any plan to visit the eastern side? Kolkata? (formerly Calcutta) Let me know.

    My email id:

    Actually, here in India, we have to learn three languages in school, the vernacular(it varies state wise) English and Hindi/Sanskrit. So you’ll find most of the Indians can speak at least three languages fluently… 🙂

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Dec 24 2016 11:20 pm

      Oh my goodness, it would be so wonderful to meet you in India. We didn’t make it to Kolkata this trip—we were there last year. But I will keep your details in case we get back soon.

      And you are right, most Indians speak multiple languages. So impressive.

      Liked by 1 person

  28. frompillartoposts / May 19 2017 7:12 am

    Really interesting read. I think England is the same in that everyone just speaks English. I don’t know many people that carried on after school age or can remember anything they learnt at school. When I travelled in France I was always amazed by the Dutch that could speak 3 or 4 languages even at a really young age.
    I only found my love for languages a few years ago but tried out a lot. Italian is my main language (intermediate), learning German (beginner) at the moment and also dabbled with French and Icelandic for holidays after the last couple of years. I love it 👍🏻😬

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / May 19 2017 4:17 pm

      Thanks so much for stopping by and commenting. Appreciate the follow too. I think it’s wonderful when people make an effort to learn some of the language of the places that they visit.

      Liked by 1 person

  29. Ankur Mithal / Oct 10 2017 3:20 pm

    Quite right. In India knowing three languages well is common, at least for people with at least a school education. Hindi and English tend to be second and third, with the regional language being the first. If your regional language is also Hindi, as in my case, you end up knowing two. One of the potential downsides of globalisation is that we will lose languages. Everyone is now speaking English which, just a generation back, was uncommon.

    Liked by 1 person

    • leggypeggy / Oct 10 2017 5:40 pm

      I’m so sad that English has overtaken all the languages. I speak English but I like trying to learn new ones and it helps if you can practice them.

      Liked by 1 person

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